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Bio permaculture 04a.5: Vegetable tricks: feeders, manure plants, and companion plants ("dream partners")

Vegetables grow differently - they eat up the nutrients differently - and they help each other being combined correctly
Companion gardening - organic gardening

Gemüsebeet mit den Traumpartnern Zwiebeln
              und Karotten   Big table with companion plants (dream partners)  
Vegetable bed with the dream partners onions and carrots [1] - The table of crosses with vegetables that promote or block each other [11] - vegetable beds with mixed culture, scheme 02 [3]

presented by Michael Palomino (2018)


Wurzelälchen=Pratylenchus worm
Säulchenrost=white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola)

1. Vegetables: heavy feeders - medium feeders tasters - weak feeders

The crop rotation reducing pests and heavy feeders - medium feeders - weak feeders - green manure

The planting of a garden bed or field generally always has to change, so that not always the same nutrients are used, and so that no pests can dominate, because they specialize in certain plants. Diseases and pests are thus naturally contained with the crop rotation. In addition, the crop rotation is proceeded
-- with heavy feeders (there must be a fresh compost layer in the planting bed)
-- medium feeders (with a remaining compost layer in the planting bed) - and
-- weak feeders (with hardly any compost in the planting bed) in front of them.

With green manure plants that absorb nitrogen from the air and thus enrich the soil, or that enrich the soil themselves, one can improve the soil and loosen it up. At the end the plants are cut off and left as mulch [web37].

Here is a table with the different plants which need many nutrients (strong feeders), medium quantity of nutrients (medium feeders) and weak feeders:

Table 1: Crop rotation with strong feeders - medium feeders - weak feeders - green manure plants
from www.wurzelwerk.net - [web37]
Strong feeders (Stro) with fresh compost layer in the planting bed:

-- artichokes
-- eggplant
-- cucumbers
-- potatoes
-- cabbage
-- pumpkin
-- leek
-- corn
-- melons
-- paprika
-- celery
-- tomatoes
-- zucchini [web37]

Medium feeders (Me) with a remaining compost layer in the planting bed:

-- strawberries
-- endive
-- fennel
-- carrots
-- garlic
-- kohlrabi
-- chard
-- paprika
-- parsnip
-- radish [?]
-- beetroot
-- salad
-- spinach
-- runner bean
-- root parsley
-- onions [web37]

Weak feeders (...) with hardly any compost in the planting bed:

-- beans [web38]
-- bush beans
-- peas
-- lamb's lettuce
-- herbs
-- radish
-- sunflowers [web37]

Green manure plants (improving the soil)

-- buckwheat
-- peas (take up nitrogen)
-- lupine (take up nitrogen)
-- radish
-- bee pasture (Phacelia)
-- yellow mustard
-- mustard
-- vetch (accumulate nitrogen) [web37]

Table 2: Crop rotation with stron feeders - medium feeders - weak feeders
from www.wildfind.com [web45]
Strong feeders (Stro) with fresh compost layer on the planting bed:

-- cauliflower
-- chili
-- chinese cabbage
-- cucumbers
-- potato
-- celery root
-- pumpkin
-- leek (leek)
-- corn
-- melanzani (eggplant)
-- melon
-- pak choi
-- choi
-- paprika
-- Brussels sprouts
-- red cabbage (red cabbage)
-- celery
-- tomatoes
-- white cabbage (cabbage)
-- zucchini

Medium feeders (Me) with remaining compost layer in the planting bed:

-- amaranth
-- golden berry
-- blood dock
-- chicory
-- chinese cabbage
-- thick bean
-- endive
-- strawberry
-- fennel
-- runner bean
-- carrot
-- kohlrabi
-- garlic
-- fennel
-- Japanese artichoke
-- kohlrabi
-- leek
-- lovage
-- parsnip
-- parsley
-- radicchio
-- radish
-- red beet
-- lettuce types
-- salsify
-- runner bean
-- root parsley
-- chicory
-- sugarloaf
-- sugarroot
-- onion

Weak feeders (...) with hardly any compost in the planting bed left:

-- cress
-- bush bean
-- pea
-- strawberry
-- parsnip chervil
-- lamb's lettuce
-- garden cress
-- orache
-- salsify
-- turnip (stubble turnip)
-- chervil
-- herbs
-- may turnip (Stemmus)
-- chard
-- evening primrose
-- purslane
-- radish
-- arugula
-- Siberian purslane
-- spinach
-- Jerusalem artichokes
-- miner's lettuce

In a garden there should be at least three different beds for strong feeders, medium feeders, and weak feeders [web38].

Strong feeders - medium feeders - weak feeders

The web site Bio Garden Kingdom (Biogartenreich) says: As long as a high nutrient content is available, one should cultivate strong feeders, when the nutrients go down medium feeders should be planted, and at the end weak feeders should be planted. With a little hillbed this process will end within 3 years, with a big hillbed with trunks in the ground it will last much longer [web36].

Tomatoes from mid-May - salad radishes from March - the main culture stays long in the bed (potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, corn), and the pre-culture / or after culture is growing fast (kohlrabi, radishes, spinach, lettuce, carrots), one should sow the fast vegetables all 4 weeks in a flexible way again. Therefore every month will be fresh vegetables available. The sequence new potatoes first and then winter cabbage is favorable. There is a sowing calendar of Maria Thun to recommend. [web38].

2. Green manure plants

Plants which enrich the soil with nitrogen or loosen the soil for more fertility

Green manure plants are planted as partner plant or before or after the main crop for bettering the soil. Fukuoka e.g. planted always barley with white clover together so this white clover accumulated nitrogen in the soil so he doubled his crop within 30 years.

The web site "Bio Gardener" (www.bio-gaertner.de) indicates the properties of green manure plants for soil improvement. Sometimes nitrogen is accumulated in the soil, sometimes the soil is loosened and becomes grainy etc. [web47].

<Compilation of green manure plants
Explanations: First here are the explanations for the key reading of the numbers:

Sowing time / seed rate g/m2 / lethal freezing temperature / root depth / soil type

-- Lethal freezing temperature: when there is a fleece installed, the lethal freezing temperatures drop by a few degrees
-- The root depth is indicated in cm and the roots only grow well under optimal conditions
-- Kind of soil: 1: all soils, 2: sandy, light, 3: acid, 4: light to medium, 5: calcareous; possibly with the following further quality features.

Now see the lists of the green manure plants:

Frost sensible green manure plants:

1. Bee-friend Phacelia tanacetifolia, heliotropes. Suppresses wild herbs. Accumulates nitrate. Flat roots with many fine roots. Grows fast. Transfers no diseases. For all vegetable crops possible. After crop after beans and peas, against their foot diseases. Also for shadow positions. Good bee & u. insect pasture. Binds soil particles. Months 4-9 / density of seed rate 3-5g / m2 / lethal freezing temperature -8ºC / root to 80cm / all  soils 1: not wet+cold climate.
2. Buckwheat Fagopyrum spec., Fagopyrum esculentum, Knotweed. Sow broad-leaved, it germinates within 3 - 5 days and grows rapidly, suppressed wild herbs, even wildrye / couch grass. The hollow stems aerate the ground. Freezing temperature are lethal. Buckwheat is in the same plant family like rhubarb. Buckwheat is especially for vegetable crops possible. Bee pasture. Green fodder for pets. Deep roots. Compost increases grain yield. Months 4-8 / ensity of seed rate 10g / m2 / lethal freezing temp 0ºC / root up to 80cm / soil can be moorish, light, dry, sandy, not heavy + calcareous.
3. Yellow mustard Sinapis alba or also white mustard, cruciferous vegetables (not for vegetable beds). Germinates and grows very fast. Not before or after other cruciferous like cabbage, watercress, rocket / arugula, radishes, oilseed rape, (sea) radish. Tap root, large root mass, makes the soil loose. Fights nematodes with beet plants and with goosefoot plants. The mustard oils have a positive effect on bacterial and fungal life in the soil. Attracts Aurora and Reseda butterflies when its sown until July. Months 3-9 / seed rate 3-5g / m2 / lethal freezing temperature -8 / root to 150cm / all soils 1. Not for vegetable beds.
4. Lupine, blue, white. Legume. Green manure plant in after-culture. Tolerates dryness. Accumulates nitrogen. For new soils and in the coastal climate. Annual. Tap root up to 1.5 m. Lupins promote the growth of wheat by transmitting nutrients from the deep. Lots of bio mass, olor, 60 cm high. Months 4-8 / seed rate 20g / m2 / lethal freezing temperature -4ºC / root to 300cm / soil 3: light, medium heavy, even with high pH.
5. Lupinus lutens. Lupine, yellow. Lupinus angustifolius. Legume. Green manure plant in after-culture. Fodder plant with a lot of green bio mass, olor. Up to 60 cm high. Nitrogen collector, loosens the soil, deep-rooted. For nutrient-poor soils. Fast growing, suppresses wild herbs. Months 4-8 / seed rate 20g / m2 months / lethal freezing temperature -4ºC / root to 300cm / soil: 2: sandy+light + 3: acid. This plant is collecting nitrogen from the air. Not sow it before or after beans and peas.
6. Oil radish. Raphanus sativus ssp. oleiformes, cruciferous vegetables. Plant this plant when there is a soil compaction. Suppresses wild herbs, partly also the couch grass. Accumulates nitrate (nitrate catcher) with it's tap root, germinates with light. Long lasting freezing temperatures are lethal. Do not sow it before or after other cruciferous vegetables, see yellow mustard. 'Pegletta' (indication form Mr. Pötschke) does not spread the cabbage hernia, and fights nematodes. Lures bees, bumblebees, hoverflies. Months 4-9 / sowing rate 3-5g / m2 / lethal with long lasting freezing temperatures / root to 150cm / soil 1: all soils, except very dry and very acidic soils. Seeds germinate only in light, inhibits the development of pests in the roots (basal cells - Bodenälchen).
7. Persian clover. Trifolium resupinatum. Legume. Grows slowly. Accumulates nitrogen (nitrogen collector). Lots of root mass with tap root. Fights cabbage fly and white cabbage butterfly when it's planted around cabbage and radish. Months 4-8 / sowing rate 5g / m2 / no indication for lethal freeze temperature / no indication for root length / soil 4: also clayey, not sandy, dry, or wet cold. Bee pasture. For tree slices of berry bushes and fruit trees.
8. Marigold Calendula officinalis. Daisy family (composits/asters). Promotes soil health (eliminates nematodes), has weak activity against pests in the roots (basal cells - Bodenälchen). Makes earth crumbly. Months 3-9 / sowing rate 10g / m2 / no indication about lethal freezing temp. / root to 80cm / soil 1 all soils, except dry soils.
9. Seradella ornithopus sativus. Legume. High protein forage plant for animal food. For poor locations. Accumulates nitrogen (nitrogen collector). Months 7-8 / sowing rate 5-10g / m2 / no lethal freezing temperature indicated / root to 150cm / soil 2: sandy+light.
10. Summer vetch Vicia sativa. Legume. Accumulates nitrogen (nitrogen collector). When oat is also sowed, this supports the vetches. Strong weed suppression due to high bio mass (green matter) formation. Months 5-8 / sowing rate 15-20g / m2 / lethal freezing temperature -5ºC / no root depth indicated / soil 1: all soils - except acid. Should not be planted before or after beans and peas.
11. Sunflowers Helianthus annuus. Daisy family. Loosen the soil deeply, roots 2.75 m. Grow quickly, form a lot of green mass. Need a lot of water, tolerate dryness. Help bees and birds. Nematodes find no food and are thereby diminished. Beneficial before planting peas, potatoes and beneficial after strawberries and cabbage. Not plant before cucumbers, peppers, lettuce, celery, tomatoes (Sclerotiniafäule). Preparing plant for the ground for a wildflower meadow (reduction of nutrients) and for new planting of fruit trees after clearing the old ones. Draw heavy metal out of the ground. Months 4-8 / sowing rate 3-5g / m2 / no lethal freezing temp. indicated / root to 275cm / soil 1: all soils: moist, nutrient-rich, warm.
12. Marigold Tagetes spec. Daisy family. Soil recovery, significant reduction of nematodes after 4 months of life. Sow it in a planting bed with vegetables and roses (in case of rose tiredness), especially between potatoes, carrots, leeks and tomatoes. Months 4-8 / sowing rate 8-10g / m2 / no lethal freeze temp. indicated / no root length indicated / soil 1: all soils.
13. Tatar buckwheat Fagopyrum tataricum. Knotweed Family. This is a plant which can grow up to 2m high when the conditions are good. Much green mass with leaves up to the top.

Frost resistant green manure plants:

1. Perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne. Sweet grasses. Grow slowly, are sensitive to drought. Leaves fine-crumbly soil. Reduces root ulcera of cabbage heme and radish black with subsequent crops. Months 8-9 / sowing rate 5g / m2 / lethal freezing temperature is missing / root to 80cm / soil 1: all soils.
2. Sainfoin. Onobrychis vicifolia. Legume. Tolerates dryness, is sensitive to moisture. Accumulates nitrogen (nitrogen collector). Green fodder for pets. Either mow before flowering or leave flowering for bees, hoverflies and other short-winged insects. Not sow after or before beans and peas. Months 3-8 / root to 20-30cm / soil 5: calcerous: warm, to neutral; not damp, sour, heavy.
3. Corn salad Valerianella locusta. Valerian plants. Requires sufficient moisture, leaves fine-crumbly soil. Compatible with all vegetables, but hardly germinates with moisture. Months 3-4 + 8-10 / sowing rate 3g / m2 / no freezing temperature indicated / root to 80cm / soil 1: all soils.
4. Crimson Clover. Trifolium incarnatum. Legume. Grows slowly, suppresses wild herbs. Accumulates nitrogen (nitrogen collector) from the air. Green fodder for pets. Survives frost to -10°C. Fights around cabbage the cabbage fly and the white cabbage butterfly. Bee pasture. Months 5-8 / sowing rate 5g / m2 / root to 100cm / soiil 5: calcerous: medium, humic, not wet, heavy, boggy, dry. Don't plant it before or after beans and peas.
5. Landsberger grass mixture. Mixture of 50% crimson clover, 30% shag and 20% raygrass. Accumulates nitrogen (nitrogen collector), loosens the soil. Sow before planting potatoes, mash [?] and carrots. Months 8-9 / sowing rate missing / lethal freezing temp. missing / soil 4: light to medium.
6. Alfalfa. Alfalfa. Medicago sativa. Legume. Accumulates nitrogen (nitrogen collector) from the air, grows up to 90 cm. Green fodder for pets. Deep taproot, with many fiber roots in the upper soil area. It improves heavy, compacted, sick soil in 2 - 3 years. Excellent for compost. Months 3-8 / sowing rate 3-5g / m2 / freezing temperature missing / root to 5m long / soil 5: clacerous: dry, not for acid and wet. Don't plant it before or after beans and peas.

7. (Winter) rye. Secale cereal. Sweet grasses. Leaves fine-crumbly soil. Does not tolerate dryness, suppresses germination of other plants (couch grass, yellow turnips, carrots, parsley, beetroot) by excreting growth-inhibiting substances. Well suited as a pre-crop before planting beans, potatoes, cabbage and asparagus. Much root mass. Latest green manure plant. Months 2-11 / sowing rate 15-20g / m2 / lethal freezing temp. missing / root lenghts missing / soil 1: all soils - except heavy or dry soil. The winter rye is often used by many organic gardeners because it is not related to any other vegetables except sweetcorn.
8. Spinach Spinacia oleracea. Amaranthaceae. Accumulates nitrate. Grows fast. Do not plant before or after Lincolnshire Spinach (Blitum bonus-henricus), Swiss chard, melde (white goosefoot), beetroot and spinach. Green fodder for pets. Improves the water retention capacity of humus. Months 2-4 + 7-9 / sowing rate 5g / m2 / no lethal freezing temperature indicated / root to 80cm / soil 1: all soils.
9. Clover Melilotus spec., white and yellow. Legume. Bees forage crop. Accumulates nitrogen (nitrogen collector) from the air, requires only little water, aerates the soil. Covers the floor quickly without gaps. Not plant before or after beans and peas. Pioneer plant with taproots, easy spreads it's seeds. Expels mice (white). For tree disks. Bee pasture, also for hoverflies and blue butterflies. Around cabbage this white and yellow clover fight cabbage fly and white cabbage butterfly. Months 3-9 / sowing rate 5-10g / m2 / no lethal freezing temperature indicated / roots to 3m long / soil 5: calcerous: dry, sandy, rocky, not sour and humic. -

All types of clover
All types of clover should not be grown too often, because their roots secrete harmful substances. They can even hinder the germination of new clover seeds in new sowing [?]. And: they are hindered by root exudates of buttercup.

10. Winter rape. Brassica napus. Crucifers. Do not plant it after or before other cruciferous vegetables because of the cabbage hernia. Replica only after several years. Promotes nematodes. Green fodder for pets. Bee pasture. Taproots. Months 8-10 / sowing rate 15-20g / m2 / no freezing temperature indicated / root to 2m long / soil 1: all soils.
11. Winter vetch Vicia villosa. Legume. Accumulates nitrogen (nitrogen collector) from the air. Big root. Months 8-9 / sowing rate 15-20g / m2 / root to 150cm / soil 1: all soils - not for heavy soils. Don't plant before or after beans or peas. Winter ground plant with rye or wheat.

And here are more reliable green manure plants:

-- Mixture of 20% Alexandrine clover, 60% oats, 20% Persian clover, sowing since 3-4, year-round; suitable as fodder for animals, or as mulch, nitrogen collector, not for dry soil. Rapid ground cover due to rapid youth development.
-- Field bean Vicia faba legumes as pre-seed before the main crop, months 2 - 7, even in drought, nitrogen collector, deep root. Even heavy soils. Not frost resistent. Taproots up to 1.5 m, for soil loosening. Cut off the beans. For nutrient-poor and dry soil. soils 3 - 5: 3: acid, 4: light to medium, 5: calcareous.
-- Cress Lepidium sativum Crucifers. Forms a lot of humus, fast growing.
-- Flat peas Lathyrus legumes. Stay low, tolerate dryness, freeze safely. For vineyard greening.
-- Red clover / meadow clover Trifolium pratense legume. Is frost resistent. Perennial green manure and fodder plant with taproot. Forms nitrogen. Significantly increases the amount of mellowness in the soil.
-- Bokhara clover, Melilotus albus, legume. This is good for clay soil, light sandy soils (not below pH 5.5) and for treating a soil fatigue. Bee pasture, grows to 140 cm high. The taproot can reach up to 5 m in length, breaking through plow sole and stone formations. With bokhara clover, cereals, root crops and fruit trees thrive better. Can be planted as a border planting on fruit tree slices fighting voles. The bitter coumarin is often not eaten by the dairy cows and other animals, but they accept fresh herbs after accustoming to it. The nutrients are equal to those of alfalfa. The plant is biennial. Sowing in early spring, 250 g / 100m2.

-- Borage (Borago officinalis), heliotropes. Is deeply rooting the soil. Bee pasture.
-- Quill mallow (Malva verticillata), malvaceae. Is a green manure plant with much leaf mass and strong tap root for soil loosening. During winter it's freezing away. Was used for centuries as a fodder plant. After sowing early in spring the plants can grow up to 2 m.
-- Cone wheat / English wheat (Triticum turgidum), sweet grasses. It is a nearly extinct species that is much more abundant than the wheat known today. Cone wheat is resistent to frost and is a rest for the soil during a crop rotation. Overwintering green manure should be incorporated in spring four weeks before the next planting so that the worms and organizems can convert it into humus.
-- Summer vetch / oat mixture, months 7 - 8, the oat supports the vetches. Nitrogen collector. For all soils, except acid. Frost resistant to -5 °.
-- Common corn-cockle (Agrostemma githago), pink family. Annual, is not related to crops and can be used everywhere. Their roots excrete saponins that destroy nematodes.
Also spelt (Triticum spelta), sweet grasses (winter) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) flax family, (summer) form rapid soil protection.

Practical green manure proposals:

-- Spring: short-term field bean, phacelia, mustard, spinach.
-- Spring / summer: field bean, alexandrine clover (1 / 2-1 year), pea-pea-oatmeal mixture, oats, Persian clover, Phacelia, Rotenburg combinade, mustard, spinach.
-- Summer / autumn: As an after crop plant lupines, oil radish, Phacelia, pea peas, mustard, common vetch evt. + oat.
-- Autumn: Overwintering green manure for fertilization of the soil can be done with Landsberger mixture, winter rape, winter beets, winter rye, downy vetch (eventually also with rye).

Compacted soil:

Suitable for loosening compacted soil are plants with deeply penetrating taproots: field bean, Bokhara clover, borage, yellow mustard, Landsberger mixture, lupine, alfalfa, oil radish, Persian clover, broad bean, curled mallow, red clover, sunflowers, king's clover, winter rape

Fukuoka e.g. planted always barley with white clover together so this white clover accumulated nitrogen in the soil so he doubled his crop within 30 years.

3. Planting the mixed culture partners (companion plants, "dream partners") - groups of plants can be planted in a positive way

Planting in rows the "right" vegetables can have very positive effects, so you can absolutely resign to any pesticides:

Gemüsebeet mit den
                        Traumpartnern Zwiebeln und Karotten   Begleitpflanzen zu Tomaten, Möhren, Kohl,
Vegetables with dream partners onions and carrots [1] - Companion plants to tomatoes, carrots, cabbage, endives [5]

Plants that protect each other (companion plants)

Nature is designed so that plants in groups (mixed culture, mixed cultivation, biodiversity) grow better than single plants in a planting bed [web26]. One plant alone in a planting bed is like a human being in the desert without a hat [web26]. Well combined plants have the effects
-- a separate microclimate
-- a separate temperature
-- own shade and sun protection
-- mutual wind protection
-- own moisture and
-- support each other in growth [web26]
-- The productivity increases within the plant group [web26].

Plants communicate and warn each other with messenger substances

Plants in a mixed culture communicate with each other
-- via messenger substances of the roots in the earth and also
-- via messenger substances in the air [web70].

The messengers are e.g. sent out when harmful insects come, so that the neighboring plants are alarmed to store certain substances in the tissue that do not taste the insects, so that in the planting bed or in the cultivation area the damage by the insects is stopped [web70].

Companion plants - the "dream partners" with positive effects for both (win-win relationship, win-win plants)
Certain plants have a positive or negative effect on each other, so that both plants grow better or worse, that is, there are plants standing side by side that promote each other or block each other [web38]. The closer the dream partners are planted next to each other, the more they protect and promote each other [web39]. Certain vegetables

Certain vegetables
-- stimulate each other in plant growth, yielding more productivity [web26, web70]
-- bring more resistance to pests and diseases [web 26]
-- can hide plants from pests [web26]
-- can mask or neutralize the scent of certain plants so that pests are not attracted to them and find them less [web26] or "neighboring plant species can use scents to ward off or confuse other pests" [web70]

-- Different root depths: "Mixed culture helps save space - plants with different root depths consume nutrients in different soil layers, so you can grow a variety of vegetables in a small space without competing for nutrients." [Web70]
-- Different nutrients: "Since the vegetables also need different nutrients, soil fatigue is prevented installing a mixed culture." [Web70]
-- Soil remains shaded: "A denser planting shadows the soil and helps to regulate the water balance, as well as suppressing unwanted weeds." [Web70]

-- Certain flowers can attract beneficial insects, which then pollinate all vegetables [web26]
-- Certain plants can attract predatory insects that eat the pests in the garden (ladybugs [eat aphids], lacewings [eat aphids], hoverfly [eat aphids]) [web26]

                                  cultivation with a scheme of the roots
                                  with carrots, salads and carrots which
                                  take their nutrients from different
                                  soil depths. Therefore a dense
                                  plantation is possible which also
                                  protects the soil
Mixed cultivation with a scheme of the roots with carrots, salads and carrots which take their nutrients from different soil depths.
Therefore a dense plantation is possible which also protects the soil [12].

Blocker plants
There are also plants that block or damage each other. These plants should be planted at a great distance from each other [web39].

[Ministry of Education is failing completely
Honestly, it is absolutely questionable why this important knowledge about the plants and Mother Earth is not taught at school, that should be mandatory in the third grade primary school].


Examples of companion plants (dream partners) with fruits, herbs, and vegetables [web63]

<Protection plants and partner plants

Planting near or as a group with protective plants and their effect on partner plants

Fragrance and root excretions of certain plants keep pests and some diseases from their special partner plants away as soon as they are planted next to each other. (Pouring flowers with a plant tea or laying branches is also supposed to work, but is much more labor-intensive than combined planting).

Protective plants and their effects on their partner plants and on the soil:

Basil (der Basilikum)

with cucumbers and tomatoes: attracts insects to pollinate, reduces mildew.

with tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage: Defends the whitefly.

Beans (die Bohnen)

with cabbages, raspberries, blackberries: their roots enrich the soil with fertilizing nitrogen.

Borage (der Borretsch)

with cucumbers: attracts insects to flower pollination, provides spice for cucumbers.

with pumpkins including zucchini: Attracts insects for pollination.

Cabbage species (die Kohlarten)

with celery: protection against celery rust

with tomatoes: Reduces leaf spots.

Caraway seeds / meridian fennel seeds (die Kümmelsamen)

with potatoes: intensifies their taste.

Carrot (die Möhre, die Karotte)

with onions and leeks: keeps onion flies and leek moths away.

Celery (der Sellerie)

with cabbages: protection against earth fleas, white cabbage butterfly, cabbage moths, cabbage flies, caterpillars. Loves wood ash, buckwheat makes potash available from the ground

Chervil (der Kerbel)

with salad species: repels ants and keeps away aphids and snails.

Common yarrow (die Gemeine Schafgarbe)

with blueberries: increases their fertility.

Corncockle (die Kornnelke, die Kornrade)

Increases the yield and quality of wheat

Cress (die Kresse)

with radish: earth fleas infest only the cress, radishes develop more flavor.

with may turnip: earth fleas infest the cress and don't attack the may turnips.

Dill (der Dill)

with cucumber, carrot, cabbage, beetroot: promotes their germination ability, prevents insects by scents, provides the ideal cucumber spice.

Fern (dryopteris) (das Farn)

with raspberries: Reduces the maggot infestation which comes by raspberry beetle.

Forget Me Not (das Vergissmeinnicht)

with raspberries: Reduces the maggot infestation by the raspberry beetle.

Garlic species (die Knoblaucharten)

with strawberries, roses, salad types, tomatoes: kills bacteria and fungi, especially gray mold.

Horseradish (der Meerrettich)

with cherry: works against Monilia (fungal disease).

with peach: works against curling disease (fungal disease).

with potatoes: horseradish leaves keep away potato beetles.

Lamb's lettuce (der Feldsalat)

with leeks and runner beans: is shading the soil promoting growth.

Lavender (der Lavendel)

with roses: repels ants and thus reduces the spread of aphids.

Leek (der Lauch)

with carrot: protection against the carrot fly

with strawberries: protects against gray mold.

Leek also has a favorable effect on the soil structure.

Lettuce types (die Salatarten)

with may turnips, radish, small radish: keeps away flea beatles.

Marigold (Calendula) (die Ringelblume)

with potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes: keeps nematodes  and wireworms away, promotes soil health.

Mustard (der Senf)

with berry bushes and vegetables, but never for cabbages: increases the fertility by shading and by incorporating its leaf mass in the soil, but promotes the clubroot.

Nasturtium (die Brunnenkresse, die Kresse)

with fruit trees: keeps them free of lice.

Oats (der Hafer)

with broad beans (vicia faba): Keeps the black bean aphid away.

Onion species (die Zwiebelarten)

with strawberry: works against fungal diseases and spider mites.

with carrots: reduces the carrot fly, it works against fungal diseases and spider mites.

Peas (die Erbsen)

with berry bushes, tomatoes: their roots enrich the soil with fertilizing nitrogen.

Potato (die Kartoffel)

on the ground: potatoes leave a crumbly soil.

Radish (der Rettich)

with leeks: keeps the leek moths away.

Sage (der Salbei)

with cabbages: expels earth fleas, white cabbage butterfly, cabbage moths, cabbage flies; so there are no caterpillars or at least less.

Savory (das Bohnenkraut)

for beans, also for broad beans (vicia faba): fights the black bean aphid and provides the ideal bean spice.

Scorpionweed (phacelia) (der Bienenfreund)

with all plants: Lures bees to pollinate the plants in the planting bed, keeps the soil healthy, provides green manure

Sour cherries (die sauren Kirschen)

with blackcurrants: keep each other healthy and fertile.

Southernwood (die Eberraute)

with cabbage sorts: It's odor (fragrance) keeps off cabbage white butterflies.

Stinging nettle (die Brennnessel)

with fruit trees and berry bushes, which have already developed a strong root system: keeps lice away, provides material for mulch and manure, promotes general recovery

Sweet lupins (süsse Lupinen)

with berry bushes and fruit trees: their roots enrich the soil with nitrogen (fertilizer!).

Tagetes (die Studentenblume)

serve as bait plants for snails, so the snails will not attack vegetable plants; scent of tagetes prevents the white fly, their roots keep the soil healthy, especially those of the patula species,

with strawberries, potatoes, cabbages, tomatoes: kills nematodes, keeps the white fly off.

Has an inhibiting effect on many weeds, including bindweed, couch grass and ashweed. They weaken and even kill them. Tagetes Minuta is the strongest species in this regard.

Tansy / cow bitter (der Rainfarn, das Wurmkraut)

with berry bushes: Keeps the shrubs healthy, if you cut it often and let the clippings as mulch on the soil.

Tomato (die Tomate)

with cabbage: Keeps cabbage white butterflies off. Green tomatoes in the kitchen can be placed in a dark box or paper bag along with fresh nettles. I have the experience that they mature well within 4-6 weeks in this way.

Valerian (der Baldrian)

with beans, peas, potatoes, cabbage

Vetch species (die Wickenarten)

with sunflowers: Climbing vetches supply sunflowers with nitrogen, sunflowers deeply loosen the soil.

with berry bushes: their roots enrich the soil with nitrogen (fertilizer!).

Wormwood (artemisia) (der Wermut)

with blackcurrant: protects against Cronartium ribicola rust. Wormwood, however, needs a sunny position and sandy soil to grow.

with leeks: drive away the leek moth.


-- Bean types (as well as broad bean) with: savory (summer savory and mountain savory), valerian
-- Beans: Climbing beans (incl. fire beans) with: lamb's lettuce, summer bean herb, mountain savory
-- Berry bushes with: scorpionweed, garden cress, garlic mace, low nasturtium, tansy (fast growing on the soil), marigolds, sweet lupins, vetches, mustard.
-- Blackberries with: bush beans, sweet lupines, vetches, mustard
-- Blackcurrant (on sunny spot) with: wormwood
-- Blueberries with: common yarrow
-- Broad beans with: summer savory, mountain savory, oats, potatoes
-- Cabbage species with: basil, dill, wormwood / lad's love, celeriac, marigold, sage, celery, low tartetes, tomato, cilantro, caraway, rosemary against white cabbage butterfly
-- Carrot with: dill, leek, shallot, onion, rosemary
-- Cherries with: horseradish
-- Cucumbers with: basil, borage, dill
-- Fruit trees (if they have already developed a large root system) with: stinging nettle, nasturtium, otherwise: scorpionweed, borage
-- Jerusalem artichokes with: climbing beans, scorpionweeds, buckwheat, vetches
-- Lamb's lettuce with: leek, runner beans, fire beans
-- Leeks with: corn salad, summer radish, wormwood, winter radish
-- May turnip with: chervil, salad types
-- Onion types with: strawberry, carrot, marjoram
-- Peach with: horseradish, sunflower
-- Peas with: barley, mustard, valerian
-- Potatoes with: horseradish, caraway, marigold, low tagetes, valerian, broad beans
-- Pumpkin types (including zucchini) with: borage
-- Radish with: chervil, leek, salad types
-- Raspberries with: bush beans, low peas, marigolds promote health; with: yarrow promotes fertility; with: ferngrass, lily of the valley and forget-me-not prevent maggot infestation by the raspberry beetle. Plant lilies of the valley within raspberry fields, make raspberries healthy and productive. Also raspberries with: garlic + onions, tansy and lemon balm between the raspberries improve the health.
-- Red beet with: dill, bush beans
-- Rose types with: garlic, lavender, sage, crosswort (Phuiopsis stylosa), lady's mantle, peppermint, scorpionsweed (phacelia), marigold, tulips, thyme, rue
-- Salads with: chervil, garlic
-- Scorpionweed: with all plants
-- Small radishes with: garden cress, chervil, salad types
-- Strawberries with: garlic, allium, low tagetes, shallot, onion
-- Sunflowers with: vetches, peach
-- Tomatoes with: basil, garlic, cabbage, low tagetes, marigold,



Tables with companion plants (dream partner plants)

Here is a cross table with the plants that promote or block each other:

Companion plants and dream
                      partners for vegetable and flowers in the planting
                      bed, list with photos
Companion plants and dream partners for vegetable and flowers in the planting bed, list with photos [10]

Big table with companion plants
                        (dream partners)
Big table with companion plants (dream partners) [11]

Plants against pests 01 [web64]

Plants against ants: mint, catmint, tansy (Tanacetum [web65]), garlic, pennyroyal, spearmint

Plants against aphids: orange, nasturtium, tomato leaves, basil, spearmint, onions, stinging nettle, garlic

Plants against white cabbage butterfly: rosemary, mint, dill, sage, hyssop, garlic, oregano, spearmint, tansy (Tanacetum [web65]), thyme, chamomile

Plants against caterpillars: garlic, tomato leaves, pepper on plant's leaves

Plants against fleas: tansy (Tanacetum [web65]), pennyroyal, wormwood, spearmint, fennel

Plants against flies: tansy, rue, wormwood, eau de cologne, mint, basil

Plants against fruit fly: tansy (Tanacetum [web65]), basil

Plants against fungus: stinging nettle, sage, horseradish

Plants against mice: wormwood, spearmint, mint

Plants against mildew: chives, dried sage, nettle

Plants against mosquitoes: tansy (Tanacetum [web65]), pennyroyal, garlic, wormwood, sassafras, (camomile [web66])
[More tricks against mosquitoes:
-- put an open glass of coconut oil in the room and mosquitoes will fly away from the odor
-- put a cream with eucalyptus and mosquitoes never come again, can be put under tables, chairs or under the bed, for example an anti rheuma creme]
Plants against moths: sage, mint, rosemary, thyme, pennyroyal, wormwood, lavender, spearmint

Plants against red spider: onion

Plants against slugs: oak leaf mulch, dry rosemary, wormwood

Plants against snails: garlic, collect cabbage leaves or inverted citrus peel cups

Plants against thrips [web68]: pyrethrum (powder from dried flowers from Dalmathian pyrethrum [web67])

Plants against tomato worm: garlic

Plants against weevils: garlic

Plants against white fly: nasturtium, basil: use as spray [web64]

Plants against pests 2 [web66]

-- Basil helps repel flies and mosquitoes.
-- Borage in the strawberry patch will increase the yield.
-- Catnip repels fleas, ants and rodents.
-- Caraway helps breakdown heavy soils.
-- Chamomile deters flies and mosquitoes and gives strength to any plant growing nearby.
-- Chives grown beneath apple trees will help to prevent apple scab; beneath roses will keep away aphids and blackspot.
-- Elderberry a general insecticide, the leaves encourage compost fermentation, the flowers and berries make lovely wine!
-- Fennel (not F. vulgare or F.officionale) repels flies, fleas and ants.
-- French Marigold root secretions kill nematodes in the soil. Will repel white fly amongst tomatoes.
-- Garlic helps keep aphids away from roses.
-- Hyssop attracts cabbage white moth keeping brassicas free from infestation.
-- Mint repels cabbage white moth. Dried and placed with clothes will repel clothes moth.
-- Nasturtium secrete a mustard oil, which many insects find attractive and will seek out, particularly the cabbage white moth. Alternatively, the flowers repel aphids and the cucumber beetle. The climbing variety grown up apple trees will repel codling moth.
-- Pyrethrum will repel bugs [damaging insects] if grown around the vegetable garden.
-- Rosemary repels carrot fly.
-- Rue (Rutus, not Peganum) keeps cats and dogs off garden beds if planted round the borders.
-- Sage protects cabbages from cabbage white moth.
-- Tansy (Tanacetum, not Senecio) repels moths, flies and ants. Plant beneath peach trees to repel harmful flying insects. Tansy leaves assist compost fermentation.
-- Wormwood (Artemesia, not Ambrosia) although it can inhibit the growth of plants near it, wormwood does repel moths, flies and fleas and keeps animals off the garden.

The plant combinations - the mixed culture table with companion plants ("dream partners") + "blockers" + feeder specifications

Certain plants have a protective effect on others, or they promote each other and are "mixed culture partners" (companion plants, "dream partners"), or they also block each other: Here is the table with the data from www.wurzelwerk.net:

Gemüsefeld mit Mischkultur, Schema 03
Vegetable field with mixed culture, Scheme 03 [4] The companion plants (dream partners) are: onions+carrots, peas+carrots, garlic+carrots, radishes+carrots, spinach+salad, potatoes+corn etc.

Table: companion plants (dream partners) and blockers with vegetables - data from www.wurzelwerk.net [web37+web39+web62]
Stro=strong feeder - Me=medium feeder  - ...=weak feeder

can well be combined with
is blocked by


Egg plant
Favorable: cauliflower, broccoli, salad (Me), cabbage (Stro), spinach (Me)

Unfavorable:  Peas, paprika, beetroot [web37+web39]

potatoes (Stro)

Eggplant, peas, potatoes, celery
Favorable: Beetroot (Me), Celery (Stro), Eggplant (Stro), Peas (...), Potatoes (Stro)
Kohl, Zwiebeln [web62]
Favorable: Cabbage (Stro), Celery (Stro), Savory, Cucumbers (Stro), Pumpkin (Stro), Tomatoes (Stro), Lettuce (Me), Beets, Asparagus, Rhubarb, Cress, Dill
Unfavorable:  Beans, peas, all of the onion family, fennel [web37+web39]

Beans (...), salad (Me)

Favorable:  Beetroot (Me), Celery (Stro), Eggplant (Stro), Peas (...), Potatoes (Stro)
Eggplant, peas, potatoes, celery
Unfavorable:  ognions, cabbage [web37+web39]

bush beans

Favorable:  Cabbage (Stro), Lettuce (Me), Rhubarb, Broad beans as a support plant, Radish, Asparagus, Carrots (carrots) (Me)
Unfavorable:  Onion plants and leek plants, beans, potatoes, tomatoes [web37+web39]
Favorable:  Bush beans, garlic (Me), leek (Stro), onions (Me), marigolds, chrysanthemums
UnFavorable:  cabbage [web37+web39]

Lamb's lettuce?

Mi Favorable:  Cucumbers (Stro), lettuce (Me), peas (...), growing after early potatoes
Unfavorable:  Beans, tomatoes, cumin, peppers, kohlrabi [web37+web39]
Favorable:  Dill, Beans, Cabbage (Stro), Onions (Me), Lettuce (Me), Garlic (Me), Corn (Stro), Paprika (Stro), Celery (Stro), Spinach (Me)
Unfavorable:  small radish, radish, zucchini [web37+web39]

Mi Favorable: Bulbous plants (Me), leeks (Stro), peas (...), small radishes (...), radish, dill, peppermint
Unfavorable: celery
Favorable:  Beans, horseradish, peppermint, valerian, kohlrabi, nasturtium, corn (Stro)
Unfavorable:  Eggplant, tomatoes (!), Peas, celery
Mi Favorable: Carrots (Me), strawberries (Me), lettuce (Me), cucumbers (Stro), fruit trees
UnFavorable:  Erbsen, Bohnen, Kohl, Zwiebel, Lauch [web37+web39]
Cabbage types brassicas
Favorable:  Carrots (Me), Peas (...), Rhubarb, Tomatoes (Stro) (!), Celery (Stro), Spinach (Me), Cress, Cucumbers (Stro), Eggplant (Stro), Swiss Chard (Me ), Beetroot (me), peppermint
Unfavorable:  other cabbage sorts, onion, garlic, strawberries, potatoes
Mi Potatoes (Stro)

Tomatoes (Stro)
Beans (...), Carrots (Me), Celery, Asparagus, Onions (Me)
Potatoes (Stro), fruit trees,
Beans (...), cabbage sorts (Stro), small radishes (Me), radish, spinach
Small radishes (Me), Radish, Asparagus, Tomatoes (Stro)
Carrots (Me), Potatoes (Stro), Cabbage sorts (Stro), small radishes (Me), Radish

Favorable: Beans (...), Corn (Stro), Onion (Me)
Unfavorable: Cucumbers, zucchini
Sta Favorable: Carrots (Me), Black salsify, Kohlrabi (Me), Strawberries (Me), Lettuce (Me), Tomatoes (Stro), Celery (Stro), Parsnips (Me)
Unfavorable:  Beetroot, beans, peas, onions, garlic [web37+web39]
Sta Favorable:  Beans (...), Pumpkin (Stro), Cucumbers (Stro), Cabbage (Stro), Carrots (Me), Parsnips (Me)

Cauliflower, broccoli, peas, cucumber, lettuce, spinach, tomatoes, zucchini
Unfavorable:  Celery, beetroot

Unfavorable: Celery, beetroot


Mi Favorable: Carrots (Me), Radishes (...), Cabbage (Stro), Beans (...), Parsnips (Me)

Unfavorable:  Beetroot, spinach, salsify [web37+web39]
Potatoes (Stro)


Fruit trees

Favorable: Garlic (me), nasturtium, horseradish
Unfavorable:  nothing :)

Sta Favorable: Tomatoes (Stro), Cucumbers (Stro), Cabbage (Stro), Carrots (Carrots) (Me)

Peppers: cucumbers, cabbage
Unfavorable:  Walnut, eggplant, fennel, nasturtium

Eggplant, potatoes


Mi Leek (Stro)

Bush beans, chicory, peas, leek, chard, runner beans, onions
Unfavorable: nothing :)


Strawberries, radishes, radish, tomatoes
Lettuce, celery [web62]
Pick salad (lettuce)
Eggplant, bush beans, peas, fennel, cabbage, kohlrabi, carrots, small radishes, radish, beetroot, spinach, onions
Potatoes [web62]
Small radish
Favorable: Lettuce (Me), Spinach (Me), Peas (...), Carrots (Me), Beans (...), Cabbage (Stro), Swiss Chard (Me), Cress, Parsley, Peppermint, Beans ( ...), Peas (...), Strawberries (Me), Swiss Chard (Me)
Unfavorable: cucumber [web37+web39]

Favorable:  Lettuce (Me), Spinach (Me), Peas (...), Carrots (carrots) (Me), Beans (...), Cabbage (Stro), Swiss Chard (Me), Cress, Parsley, Peppermint, Peas ( ...), Strawberries (Me), Swiss Chard (Me)
Unfavorable: cucumber [web37+web39]

Favorable:  Cabbage (Stro), Lettuce (Me), Spinach (Me), Beans (...), Peas (...)
Unfavorable: nothing :)

Favorable:  Beans (...), Onions (Me), Cucumbers (Stro), Lettuce (Me), Garlic (Me), Cabbage (Stro), Leek (Stro), Lettuce (Me), Zucchini (Stro)
Unfavorable:  Spinach, Swiss chard, aubergine, potatoes, leeks
Mi Favorable:  Eggplant (Stro), Beans (...), Savory, Peas (...), Radish, Salsify, Rhubarb, Leek (Stro), Garlic (Me), Asparagus, Marigold flowers
Unfavorable:  Parsley, celery, potatoes

Favorable:  Leeks (Stro), marigold flowers, lettuce (Me), beans (...), carrots (Me), small radishes (...)
Unfavorable: Swiss chard
Sta Favorable:  Beans (...), Peas (...), Dill, Marigold flowers, Cabbage (Stro), Tomato (Stro), Spinach (Me), Leek (Stro)
Unfavorable:  Celery, carrots, corn, lettuce, potatoes,


Favorable: Dill, parsley, salad (me), marigold flowers!, peas (...), beans (...)

Cucumbers, kohlrabi, lettuce, parsley, pickles salad (lettuce)
UnFavorable:  nothing :)

Mi Rhubarb, Radish, small radishes (...), Beans (...), Cabbage (Stro), Cress, Tomatoes (Stro), Celery (Stro), Eggplant (Stro)
Unfavorable:  Beetroot, Swiss chard
Climbing bean?

Sta Favorable:  Lettuce (Me), Cabbage (Stro) !, Celery (Stro), Leek (Stro), Beans (...), Chamomile, Parsley, Basil, Onions (Me), Garlic (Me)

Bush beans, garlic, cabbage, lettuce, leeks, corn, carrots, parsley, small radishes, radish, celery, spinach
UnFavorable:  Cucumbers, fennel, potatoes!, peas, walnut trees

Peas, fennel, potatoes

Root parsley?

Sta Favorable: Beans (...), Corn (Stro), Beetroot (Me), Onion (Me)
Unfavorable: Cucumbers, pumpkin
Mi Favorable: Carrots (Me), pumpkin (stro), strawberries (Me), tomatoes (stro), beetroot (me), dill, chamomile, zucchini (stro)
Unfavorable: Beans, potatoes, cabbage, peas, leeks



Strawberries (Me)


Tomatoes (Stro), onions (Me)


Strawberries (Me), salad (Me), black salsify, celery, asparagus


vetch, peach


for attracting snails so they don't attack vegetables

Scorpionweed (Phacelia)

for attracting bees: with any vegetable


Here is the table for companion plants and blockers of kleingaertnerin.de [web61]:

Table with companion plants ("dream partners") and blockers from kleingaertnerin.de [web61]
companion plant ("dream partner")
Aubergine White beans
Paprika, tomatoes
Basil Fennel, cucumber, tomatoes, zucchini
Red cabbage Borretsch, Buschbohnen, Erbsen, Möhren, Phacelia, Salate, Sellerie, Spinat Garlic, cabbage, tomatoes, onions
Cauliflower Bush beans, peas, celery
Flowers: scorpionweed (phacelia)
Garlic, onions
Beans, beetroot, salads
Borage Red cabbage, beans, strawberries, peas, kohlrabi, cabbage

Bush beans Savory, borage, Chinese cabbage, dill, strawberries, cucumbers, nasturtium, potatoes, cabbage, kohlrabi, small radishes, radish, beetroot, lettuce, sage, celery, spinach, tomatoes
Peas, fennel, garlic, paprika, leek, chives, climbing beans, onions
Chinese cabbage
Beans, peas, spinach, lettuce Small radishes, radish
Broad beans Potatoes, salsify, spinach, nasturtium

Dill Peas, carrots, cucumbers, cabbage sorts, beetroot, lettuce, onion

Endive Fennel, cabbage, leek, runner beans

Peas Borage, dill, fennel, cucumber, cabbage sorts, kohlrabi, lettuce, corn, carrots, small radishes, radish, celery, spinach, zucchini
Beans, potatoes, garlic, leek, tomatoes, onion
Strawberries Borage, bush beans, garlic, lettuce, leek, small radishes, spinach
Flowers: marigold flowers
Cabbage sorts
Lamb's lettuce

Strawberries, radishes
Fennel Endive, pea, lamb's lettuce, cucumber, lettuce, celery
Beans, tomato, kohlrabi
Cucumbers Basil, beans, dill, peas, fennel, cabbage, lettuce, caraway, corn, leek, beetroot, celery, onions
Flowers: sunflowers
Tomatoes, potatoes, small radishes, radish

Bush beans, broad beans, nasturtium, kohlrabi, caraway, corn, horseradish, peppermint, spinach
Flowers: tagetes
Peas, cucumbers, pumpkin, beetroot, celery, tomatoes, onion
Flowers: sunflowers
Garlic Strawberries, cucumbers, raspberries, carrots, beetroot, tomatoes
Flowers: lilies, roses
Peas, bush beans, cabbage, climbing beans
Celery root Beans, peas, cucumbers, cabbage, kohlrabi, leek, spinach, tomato
Potatoes, corn, salad
Cabbage Beans, Borage, Dill, Endive, Peas, Cucumber, Beetroot, Lettuce, Celery, Spinach, Tomatoes
Flowers: Tagetes
other types of cabbage, potatoes, garlic, kohlrabi, rhubarb, chives, onions
Kohlrabi Beans, borage, dill, peas, strawberries, cucumbers, potatoes, leek,small radishes, beetroot, lettuce, salsify, celery, asparagus, spinach

Beans, chicory, peas, fennel, cucumbers, cabbage sorts, kohlrabi, carrots, leek, small radishes, radish, salsify, tomatoes, onion
Cress, parsley, celery
Corn Beans, cucumbers, potatoes, lettuce, pumpkin, melons, tomatoes, zucchini
Beetroot, celery
Chard Bush beans, cabbage sorts, carrots, small radishes, radish, salad
Horseradish Potatoes

Carrots Chicory, dill, peas, garlic, chard, leek, small radishes, radish, lettuce, salsify, spinach, tomatoes, onions
Beetroot, peppermint
Paprika Cabbage, carrots, tomatoes Peas, fennel, beetroot
Parsnips Carrots, potatoes, lettuce, pickles salad, small radishes, beetroot, celery, spinach

Parsley Cucumbers, radishes, tomatoes, onions
all salad sorts
Lollo salad

Bush beans, fennel, cabbage, small radishes, beetroot, beans, parsnips

Leek Endives, strawberries, cabbage sorts, garlic, carrots, parsley, lettuce, salsify, celery, spinach, tomato
Beans, peas, beetroot, runner beans
Small radish Beans, peas, nasturtium, cabbage, chard, carrots, parsley, lettuce, spinach, tomato
Cucumbers, Chinese cabbage
Radish Beans, peas, nasturtium, cabbage, chard, carrots, parsley, lettuce, spinach, tomato
Cucumbers, Chinese cabbage
Rhubarb Bush beans, cabbage, lettuce, spinach
Beetroot Beans, dill, cucumbers, cabbage, kohlrabi, lettuce, zucchini, onions
Potatoes, Swiss chard, leek, spinach
Salsify Beans, kohlrabi, leek, salad
Celery Bush beans, Chinese cabbage, fennel, cucumber, chamomile, cabbage, kohlrabi, parsnip, leek, lettuce, spinach, tomatoes
Peas, potatoes
Dill, cucumber, parsley, kohlrabi, lettuce, tomatoes
Spinach Strawberries, potatoes, cabbage, kohlrabi, small radishes, radish, rhubarb, climbing beans, tomatoes
Beetroot, Swiss chard
Climbing beans Cucumbers, nasturtium, potatoes, cabbage sorts, kohlrabi, small radishes, radish, beetroot, lettuce, sage, celery, spinach
Bush beans, peas, fennel, garlic, paprika, leek, chives, onions
Tomatoes Bush beans, chicory, garlic, kohlrabi, carrots, parsnip, parsley, leek, radish, lettuce, celery, spinach, onions
Flowers: marigold flowers
Red cabbage, peas, fennel, cucumbers, potatoes, beetroot
Zucchini Basil, nasturtium, climbing beans, onions Cucumbers
Onions Dill, savory, cucumber, chamomile, garlic, carrots, parsnip, beetroot, lettuce, tomatoes, zucchini Beans, peas, potatoes, cabbage, leek



Marigold flowers (calendula)
Strawberries, cucumbers, cabbages, salads, tomatoes, and Marigold flowers can be planted anywhere else where there is space to have Thyme [web71]

Scorpionweed (phacelia) Cauliflower

Cabbage, potatoes

Robust vegetables, which hardly cause problems and guarantee a safe harvest, are: herbs, lettuce, chard, zucchini, beetroot, radish, garlic, Jerusalem artichoke, beans or leeks [web38].

The alternative in the small garden: pouring a herb soup or lay down branches

If you only have a small garden, you can also make a soup from the "protective plant" and use it to water the partner plant, or you can also place branches of the "protective plant" between the partner plants [web58].

Companion plants (mixed culture partners, "dream partners") and the effects - details
Companion plants (mixed culture plants, "dream partners") in the gardening economy - schemes
Gemüsefeld mit Mischkultur, Schema
Vegetable patch with mixed culture, Scheme 01 [3]: are dream partners
Gemüsebeet mit Mischkultur, Schema
Vegetable planting bed with mixed culture, scheme 02 [3]: dream partners are
Tomatoes + basil,
Tomato + paprika,
Dill + carrots,
Swiss chard + carrots (carrots)
Radish + parsley,
Salad + spinach etc.
Onions + carrots,
Spinach and salad,
Dill + carrots,
Mangold + cabbage
Small radishes + carrots,
Small radishes and salad (romaine lettuce),
Small radishes + cabbage (kale),

Zucchini ist anspruchslos, robust und wächst immer. Zucchini ist anspruchslos, robust und wächst immer.

-- Onion: Onion's odor expells carrot fly [web38]
-- Carrot: Carrot's odor expells onion fly [web48]
-- Celery: celery's odor expells cabbage fly + cabbage aphids [web48]
-- Cress: Cress scent expells snails [web48]
-- Borage with many flowers: attracts bumblebees + insects, so that other vegetables are safely fertilized [web48]
-- Marigold flowers expell Pratylenchus worms (round worms [web49]) and guarantee other plants intact roots and good growth [web48]

Examples of companion plants (mixed culture partners, "dream partners"):
-- carrots + onions: onion scent sells the carrot fly - carrot scent sells the onion fly [web38]
-- carrots + onions - kohlrabi + small radishes - peas + lettuce - by root secretions such as saponins (soap substances) and essential oils [web48]
-- Tomatoes + basil: The root exudates of basil cause tomatoes to absorb the nutrients better + are forming more flavor. Basil in the protected tomato bed develops more leaf mass and roots will not rot [web48].
-- Kohlrabi + celery: Both grow very well when they are well watered. The strong celery smell expells cabbage fly + cabbage aphids [web48].
-- Lettuce + peas (sugar peas, peas): lettuce grows fast, initially consuming the nutrients. Peas grow slowly. The lettuce is already harvested when the peas come right and need the nutrients [web48].
-- Zucchini and cress (Nasturtium): Zucchini is a flat rooter. Nasturtium loosens the soil and keeps it weed-free. The smell of cress (Nasturtium) expells the snails [web48].
-- Borage improves the growth of other vegetables in general. Borage attracts bumblebees + insects and ensures pollination [web48].
-- Borage + cucumbers: Borage improves the flower bud. Borage attracts bumblebees + insects and ensures pollination [web48].
-- Borage + Strawberries: Borage improves the flower bud. Borage attracts bumblebees + insects and ensures pollination [web48].
-- Swiss chard: Swiss chard with large leaves provides shade protection and keeps the soil moist [web48].
-- Marigold flowers: Promote growth in any plant by preventing root damages with Pratylenchus worms (round worms [web49]) [web48].
-- Swiss Chard + Marigold flowers: Swiss chard with large leaves provides shade protection and keeps the soil moist, so that the Marigold flowers germinate safely. The Marigold flowers keep Pratylenchus worms away and chard grows very well [web48]

Nitrogen plants
-- beans,
-- peas,
-- sweet lupins: promote berry bushes and fruit trees: their roots enrich the soil with nitrogen (fertilizer!) [Web58]
-- vetches: enrich the soil with nitrogen (fertilizer!) [web58]
-- all Legumes (beans) give the soil nitrogen (beans) [web26]

Companion plants (mixed culture partners): vegetables+vegetables - vegetables+shrubs
List of gesundesleben.online

Here is the list of wildfind found on www.gesundesleben.online [web58]:

Beans with cabbage sorts, raspberries, blackberries: their roots enrich the soil with fertilizing nitrogen [web58]

-- promotes cucumbers: attracts insects to pollinate, provides cucumber spice [web58]
-- promotes pumpkins and zucchini: attracts insects for pollination [web58]

Peas promote berry bushes and tomatoes: their roots enrich the soil with fertilizing nitrogen [web58]

Lamb's lettuce promotes leeks and climbing beans (runner beans): promotes growth by shading the soil [web58]

Carrot promotes onion species and leeks: keeps onion flies and leek moths away [web58]

-- promotes carrots: protection against carrot fly [web58]
-- promotes strawberries: protects against gray molds [web58]
-- generally promotes soil structure [web58]

Garlic species
-- Garlic works against bacteria and against fungi, e.g. with strawberries [web60]
-- promotes strawberries, roses, lettuce, tomatoes: kills bacteria and fungi, especially gray horse [web58]

-- promote celery: protection against celery stalks [web58]
-- promote tomato: Reduce leaf spots [web58]

-- promotes cherries: works against monilia (fungal disease) [web58]
-- promotes peach trees: works against leaf curl cramping disease (fungal disease) [web58]
-- promotes potatoes: horseradish leaves keep the Colorado beetle away [web58]

Radish promotes leeks: Keeps the leek moth away [web58, web60]

-- supports cabbage: keeps white cabbage butterflies off [web58]

Ripen tomatoes with stinging nettles
Placing green tomatoes with stinging nettles in a dark box or paper bag, they will ripen in 4 to 6 weeks, and very well [web58]

Salad species foster may turnip, small radishes and radish: Salad species keep flee beatles away [web58]

Shallots promote strawberries + carrots: Shallots keep fungal diseases away [web60]

Celery promotes cabbage: protection against earthflies, cabbage white butterflies, cabbage moths, cabbage flies, caterpillars. Loves wood ash, buckwheat makes potash available from the ground [web58]

Onion species
-- promote strawberries: works against fungal diseases and spider mites [web58]
-- promote carrots: Reduce the carrot fly, has effect against fungal diseases and spider mites [web58].

Companion plants (mixed culture partners): vegetables+herbs ("assistant plant")

Tabelle: Wirkungen von Beipflanzen bei
                            Gemüsen    Beipflanzen
                            für Bohnen, Erdbeeren, Lauch, Karotten
Assistant plants supporting vegetables and strawberries [7] - Assistant plants for beans, strawberries, leek, carrots [8]

Valerian promotes beans peas, potatoes, cabbage [web58]

-- basil + tomatoes / cabbage: basil works against mildew and against the white fly [web59]
-- works with cucumbers and tomatoes: attracts insects to pollinate, reduces mildew [web58]
-- works with tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage: is expelling the white fly [web58]

-- promotes growth and aroma of beans, protects against black bean lice [web60]
-- promotes also broad beans: expells the black bean louse and is a good bean spice [web58]

Borage (Borago) attracts insects, e.g. for cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin [web60]

Stinging nettle
-- For fruit trees and berry bushes, which have already developed a strong root system: Keeps lice away, provides material for mulch and manure [web58]
-- Promotes general recovery in fruit trees and berry bushes [web58]

Dill promotes cucumber, carrot, cabbage, beetroot: promotes germination, removes pests by odor and scents, provides the ideal cucumber spice [web58]

Lad's love (spice + medicinal herb) promotes cabbage species: odor and scents keep white cabbage butterfly away [web58]

Lavender promotes roses: repels ants and reduces the spread of aphids [web58]

Cress (Nasturtium)
-- promotes fruit trees: keeps them free of lice [web58]
-- promotes small radishes: flea beatles infest only the cress, small radishes develop more flavor [web58]
-- promotes May turnips: flea beatles infest the cress and May turnips are save [web58]

Chervil works against lice in lettuce [web60]
-- chervil with endive salad: chervil drives out lice [web59]

Corncockle promotes wheat: Increases the yield and quality of wheat [web58]

Caraway promotes potatoes: intensifies their taste [web58]

Peppermint: positive for potatoes, negative for carrots [web61]

Tansy promotes berry bushes: keeps the shrubs healthy, if you cut it often and the clippings are left on the planting bed [web58]

Sage promotes cabbage: expels earth fleas, white cabbage butterfly, cabbage moths, cabbage flies; this prevents or at least reduces the caterpilar formation [web58]
-- Sage + carrots / cabbage: Sage expells white cabbage butterfly [web59

Mustard promotes berry bushes and vegetables (except cabbage): Increases fertility by shading and by incorporating its leaf mass in the soil, but promotes the clubroot, and therefore the combination with mustard + cabbage sorts does not work [web58]

Wormwood (in sunny place with sandy soil)
-- promotes blackcurrant berry brush: protects against white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) [web58]
-- promotes leeks: expels the leek moth [web58, web60]

Wood fern (Dryopteris) promotes raspberries: Reduces the maggot infestation by the raspberry beetle [web58]

Companion plants (mixed culture partners): vegetables + cereals
from the website gesundesleben.online

Oats help broad beans: Keep the black bean louse away [web58]

Companion plants (mixed culture partners) vegetables + flowers

List of the website gesundesleben.online

Scorpionweed (Phacelia): promotes all plants: attracts bees for flower pollination in the planting bed, keeps the soil healthy, provides green manure [web58]

Common yarrow (flower, daisy family) promotes blueberries: increases their fertility [web58]

Chervil (flower, daisy family) promotes species of lettuce: repels ants and keeps aphids and snails away [web58]

Marigold flowers promote potatoes, cabbage and tomatoes: Keeps nematodes (Pratylenchus worm) and wireworms away, promotes soil health [web58]

Tagetes flower
-- serve as bait plants attracting snails [so there must be a drywall with the snail eaters], the scent of Tagetes flowers keeps the white fly away, their roots keep the soil healthy, especially Tagetes patula species [web58]
-- promotes strawberries, potatoes, cabbage and tomatoes: kills nematodes (root rot), keeps the white fly off [web58]

Sour cherries promote blackcurrants: Keep each other healthy and fruitful [web58]

Sweet lupins promote berry bushes and fruit trees: their roots enrich the soil with nitrogen (fertilizer!) [web58]

Forget Me Not
-- promotes raspberries: reduces the maggot infestation by the raspberry beetle [web58]

Vetch spices
-- promote berry bushes: their roots supply the soil with nitrogen (fertilizer) [web58]
-- vetches + sunflowers: climbing vetches provide sunflowers with nitrogen, sunflowers loosen the soil profoundly [web58]

The companion plants (mixed culture partners, "dream partners") according to wildfind, found on the website www.gesundesleben.online

-- Bean types (as well as broad bean): with savory (summer savory and mountain savory), valerian [web58]
-- Broad beans: with summer savory, mountain savory, oats, potatoes [web58]
-- Peas: with barley, mustard, valerian [web58]
-- Strawberries: with Garlic, leek, Low Tagetes flowers, shallot, onion [web58]
-- Lamb's lettuce: with leek, runner beans, fire beans [web58]
-- Cucumbers: with basil, borage, dill [web58]
-- Carrot: with dill, leek, shallot, onion, rosemary [web58]
-- Potatoes: with horseradish, caraway, Marigold flowers (Calendula), Low Tagetes flowers, Valerian, Broad beans [web58]
-- Cabbage sorts: with basil, dill, boar eye, celeriac, marigold, sage, celery, low tagetes, tomato, cilantro, caraway, rosemary against cabbage white [web58]
-- Pumpkin species (including zucchini): with borage [web58]
-- Leek sorts: with corn salad, summer radish, wormwood, winter radish [web58]
-- May turnip: with chervil, salad types [web58]
-- Small radishes: with garden cress, chervil, salad [web58]
-- Radishes: with chervil, leeks, salad [web58]

-- Beetroot: with dill, bush beans [web58]
-- Salad sorts: with chervil, garlic [web58]
-- Climbing beans (including fire beans): with corn salad, summer savory, mountain savory [web58]
-- Tomatoes: with basil, garlic, cabbage, Low Tagetes flowers, Marigold flowers (Calendula) [web58]
-- Jerusalem artichokes: with runner beans, tufts, buckwheat, vetches [web58]
-- Onion sorts: with strawberry, carrot, marjoram [web58]yyy


-- Berry bushes: with scorpionweed, garden cress, garlic mace, Indian cress, tansy (grows rampant), marigold flowers, sweet lupins, vetches, mustard [web58]
-- Blueberries: with Common Yarrow [web58]
-- Raspberry: with bush beans, low peas, marigold flowers promote health, yarrow promotes fertility; fern, lily of the valley and forget-me-not prevent maggot infestation by the raspberry beetle. Plant lilies of the valley, makes raspberries healthy and productive. Also garlic + onions, tansy and lemon balm between the raspberries improve the health [web58]
-- Blackcurrant (on sunny spot): with wormwood [web58]


-- Scorpionweed: with all plants [web58]
-- Blackberries: with bush beans, sweet lupines, vetches, mustard [web58]
-- Mullein: loosens hardened soil, can be planted everywhere on perimeter [web60]
-- Marigold flowers promote all vegetables with effect against nematodes, against wireworms, promotes rooting and soil health [web60]
-- Roses: with garlic, lavender, sage, lavender, rose master, lady's mantle, peppermint, tufts, marigold, tulips, thyme, rue [web58]
-- Sunflowers: with vetches [web58]
-- Tagetes: works against nematodes and for soil health with all vegetables [web60]

Fruit trees

-- Cherry trees: with horseradish [web58]
-- Fruit trees (with large developed root system): with stinging nettle, nasturtium, otherwise: bee lover, borage [web58]
-- Peach trees: with horseradish, sunflower [web58]

Examples of "blockers"
-- Peas + beans is NEGATIVE [web48]
-- Leek + beetroot is NEGATIVE [web48]
-- Radishes + cucumbers is NEGATIVE [web48]
-- Leek + cabbage is NEGATIVE [web48].

4. Save and rebuild hard, barren soil

When there is no more growth, the soil can be "repaired", with plants with strong taproots, with plants with long roots, with mulch and humus:
-- Plant taproot pioneer plants: fenugreek, dandelion break up the soil [web26]
-- Potatoes loosen the soil: potatoes leave a crumbly soil [web58]
-- Dig in rare cases, then mulch and cover the open soil to protect the soil animals [web26]
-- Put compost [web26]
-- Plant plants which produce a lot of green mulch biomass, so that the leaves then rot to humus [web26]
-- Legumes give the soil nitrogen (beans) [web26]
-- Never step on the ground of a garden bed [web26]
-- Earthworms produce more fresh humus in the bed, earthworms dig well the earth [web26]

Weed killer
Tagetes against "weeds"
Tagetes inhibits many proliferating weeds, including bindweed, couch grass and ashweed. They weaken and even kill them. Tagetes Minuta is the strongest in this regard [web58]

5. Grow vegetables, more guidelines and tricks

Growing vegetables that do not exist in the supermarkets will increase self-esteem and eventually there will be sellings to others [Flo Scott - web25].

Tactics for vegetable cultivation:

Distances: Keep distances with the same vegetables, do not plant too densely: The recommendations of the "distance instructions" have their meaning: too densely planted vegetables of the same sort take each other the water away [web20], and take each other the nutrients away, and can not reach full size, will be weaker and more susceptible to pests [web25].

Distances: Different vegetables can be planted densily: When the vegetables in a planting bed are different vegetables then they can also be combined in a dense space, according to the experience of fruit forest owner Robert Hart. There are no problems with watering or robbing water from plant to plant when the vegetables are different [web20].

Sowing vegetables marking the vegetables with sowing strips: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/337910778282544386/

Vegetables with sun, mushrooms and ferns in the shade: where trees form a closed shade, one can not plant vegetables that need sun, but mushrooms and shade plants must be planted that grow rapidly in the spring, before the foliage of the trees is closed forming a total shadow [web23].

Drought-resistant vegetables and spices with long roots
-- Jerusalem artichoke, has no problems with drought, multiplies like weeds with normal climatic conditions [web20]
-- Leek [web20]
-- Parsnip [web20]
-- Carrots [web20]
-- Oregano [web20]
-- Thyme [web20]
-- Rosemary [web20]
-- Sorrel: French sorrel is not only edible, but is also a dynamic accumulator of K, P, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg. Sorrel roots make their tunnels down to four to six feet [down to 2m] and pull up minerals to the surface which remain on the surface during winter when the leaves die [web22]

Planting plant groups together - corn + beans + pumpkin "The Three Sisters": These plants in a group increase each other, and also space is saved. In the "USA", the indigenous people developed a combination "The Three Sisters": corn + climbing beans + pumpkin (squash). Beans are climbing the corn, and beans accumulate nitrogen in the soil providing more nutrients. The pumpkin grows on the ground and prevents the soil from drying out and suppresses the weeds. For soil protection you can also plant cress (nasturtium) [Flo Scott - web25].

Further combination options:
-- Climbing beans on the ground with cress (nasturtium) on the ground: the cress (nasturtium) expels black flies from the beans [Flo Scott - web25]
-- Radish + parsnip together: the radish grows fast and the parsnip grows for a long time [Flo Scott - web25]
-- Carrots + onions: the onion smell expels the carrot fly [Flo Scott - web25].
-- Herbs and vegetables in a polyculture: this combination will confuse cabbage white butterfly and other harmful animals [Flo Scott - web25].

Crop rotation: spring plants - summer plants - winter plants
-- with clever planning you can harvest several times a year [web25], so that the plants will follow each other in a favorable sequence [web26]
-- the periods may also overlap slightly, so that the planting beds will never be empty [web26]:
-- purple beans, then summer salad, and then broad beans, and between put fresh compost mulch on the ground [Flo Scott - web25]

Crop rotations, for not leaching the soil

-- "If possible, do not cultivate the same crop for two years at the same spot (except enduring 2 years plants).
-- If possible, do not plant vegetables of the same plant family in the same place for two consecutive years. [...]
-- Check the mixed culture table to see if planned crops are compatible in the raised bed.
-- Check up about endangered crops (leeks, carrots, cabbages, strawberries) if there are protective assistant plants. "[Web60]

Examples of soil mixtures for raised beds

Plantura-Garten (Germany) recommends the following soil, compost and natural fertilizer for raised beds:

-- "Floragard Universal raised bed soil: Special soil without peat for filling raised beds, no different layers needed.
-- Floragard compost for raised beds: Premium compost with ideal composition and nutrients for raised beds.
-- Cuxin Raising & Herb Fertilizer: High quality, organic-mineral and vegan plant-based fertilizer for optimal growth and rich harvest. Ideal for use in raised beds and for the nutrient supply of herbs. "[Web60]

Overproduction can be given to neighbors: This is how to cultivate neighborly relations [Flo Scott - web25].

6. Tricks with individual vegetables

Vegetables that provide shade:
"Plant hops and beans to shade sunny parts of the house in summer and lower the temperature on the planting bed." [Web24]

Broccoli: When it comes to broccoli, the umbels are the first to come on the market as broccoli. Only later the side flowers appear, from which one can save the seeds [web22].

Leeks: With the harvest of leek one can let stand 4cm of it and new leek grows [web24].

Salad: salad must grow in shady places, otherwise it will get a bitter taste [web50]. (!!!!!!!!)

Karotten: "Achten Sie darauf, dass Sie genügend von der Oberseite für das vegetative Nachwachsen lassen, insgesamt etwa 2 cm Wurzel und Blatt. Dieser Prozess findet in einer Erweiterung von steckling seed carrots statt. Steckling ist die Methode, um Karotten für die Selektion von Wurzelmerkmalen zu ziehen und sie dann nach einer kurzen Vernalisationsphase wieder zu pflanzen, um Samen anzubauen. Für weitere Informationen zum Steckenpferd lesen Sie die Grundsätze und Praktiken der Produktion von Bio-Karottensaatgut im pazifischen Nordwesten (PDF) der Organic Seed Alliance." [web243]

7. Tuber vegetables / root vegetables

Cut off tubers from carrots, onions and turnips and set new ones: Cutting off the tuber and replant the top, the plant will recover and form a new tuber, not as beautiful as the first one, but much faster than after sowing another time [web24].

Onions in the 12-liter bottle: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/485192559846912568/

Fennel: Only cutting the fennel bulb away, a new fennel bulb will grow [web24].

Potatoes in the raised bed to avoid fretting
A permaculture group from South Oregon says:

"Plant your potatoes in empty raised beds. After digging potatoes out of the ground by hand last year, I swore, "Never again." Digging potatoes out of the ground is not just a lot of work and a game of hunting and searching, but you also compete with the rodents for their harvest. Here are four old raised beds with 1/4 inch wire hardware cloth nailed to the floor to keep the rodents from working in. We planted the potatoes in 2 to 3 inches of compost and then covered it with old straw. We will continue to add alfalfa when the potato plants are grown - to increase our yield vertically. Alfalfa is preferable to straw because of its low nitrogen content. I estimate that we will at least double our yield per square foot with the raised beds and with the simple harvest procedure without losses by rodents. After the potatoes have been removed this fall we will throw the alfalfa into the compost heap and start with a fresh cover next spring. By replacing the nutrient medium the accumulation of potato pests is hindered." [web24]

There is a bucket for potatoes with removable insert: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/861946816159216916/

Tuber vegetables can be grown in a hanging pot with hanging roots and hanging tubers coming down below:

Asparragus: can be planted at home: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/329185054005562140/

Ginger can be grown in a glass of water: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/461689399273085804/

Garlic can be grown in a glass of water: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/556053885229637296/

Further features about vegetables - and companion plants

Zucchini: unpretentious - Strawberries: undemanding - Spices in the blazing sun: undemanding - Thyme is ground cover - Paprika takes longer - Chard is best for cool season, when it's cut it grows again - Bush beans ripen quickly and do not climb much - green beans climb on supports as also soybeans do, also Lima beans, scarlet runner beans, bell beans - salads must grow in the shade, otherwise they will be bitter [web50].

Companion plants (dream partner combinations): salad + arugula, salad + chicory, salad + chervil, salad + spinach - carrots + radishes: are available in 1 month. Small radishes: leaves can be harvested after 2 weeks, after about 3 weeks the radishes themselves. In autumn can be harvested one more time [web50].

8. Climbing vegetables

Beans, peas, cucumbers: tendril plants can grow high (beans, peas, cucumbers), at the same time will grow on the ground other vegetables (chard, salads, rootbeets) [Flo Scott - web25].

Climbing cucumbers growing on a pergola: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/430938258075889050/

Eggplant growing on a pergola: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/382383824595408333/

Broad beans are suitable for lower temperatures and accumulate nitrogen in the ground like all legumes [web26]

Legumes (beans) give the soil nitrogen and make it more fertile [web26]

Plant tomatoes yourself: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/46443439892201831/
Tomato tricks: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/488148047101688212/
Tomato tricks as dense as ever: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/620863498606216838/

More links

-- companion planting: https://www.backyardboss.net/companion-planting/

<<           >>



1. Gemüse: Starkzehrer - Mittelzehrer - Schwachzehrer - Gründüngung: Tabelle 1: Die Fruchtfolge mit Starkzehrern - Mittelzehrern - Schwachzehrern - Gründüngung -- Tabelle 2: Die Fruchtfolge mit Starkzehrern - Mittelzehrern - Schwachzehrern -- Die Gründüngung -- 2. Gründüngung: Gründungungspflanzen, die den Stickstoff im Boden erhöhen -- 2. Die  "Traumpartner" - Pflanzengruppen in positiver Weise anpflanzen: Pflanzen, die sich gegenseitig schützen --  Begleitpflanzen - die "Traumpartner" mit positiven Wirkungen für beide (Win-Win-Verhältnis, Win-Win-Pflanzen) -- Blockierer-Pflanzen -- Die Pflanzenkombinationen - die Mischkulturtabelle mit den "Traumpartnern"+"Blockierern" -- Tabelle: Die Liste der Traumpartner und Blockierer bei Gemüsen -- Robuste Gemüsesorten -- 3. Harten, unfruchtbaren Boden wiederauflockern und wiederaufbauen -- 4. Gemüse anbauen, weitere Leitlinien und Tricks -- 5. Tricks mit einzelnen Gemüsen -- 6. Knollengemüse / Wurzelgemüse -- 7. Klettergemüse

[web01] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permakultur
[web02] Projekt 63 in Möhlin: http://www.gemeinschaften.ch/jodir/index.php/gemeinschaftsprojekte-mainmenu-38/635-projekt-63-moehlin-ag-lebensgemeinschaft-auf-dem-bauernhof-permakultur-solidarische-landwirtschaft-rvl-csa
[web03] http://www.agenda21-treffpunkt.de/archiv/03/11/SeppHolzer.htm
[web04] https://www.amazon.de/Agrar-Rebell-Sepp-Holzer/dp/3702009701/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1538588625&sr=1-1&keywords=agrar-rebell
[web05] http://www.krameterhof.at/cms60/index.php?id=5
[web06] https://www.amazon.de/Agrar-Rebell-Sepp-Holzer/product-reviews/3702009701/ref=cm_cr_dp_d_show_all_btm?ie=UTF8&reviewerType=all_reviews
[web07] https://www.amazon.de/Agrar-Rebell-Sepp-Holzer/product-reviews/3702009701/ref=cm_cr_arp_d_paging_btm_2?ie=UTF8&reviewerType=all_reviews&pageNumber=2
[web08] https://www.amazon.de/Agrar-Rebell-Sepp-Holzer/product-reviews/3702009701/ref=cm_cr_getr_d_paging_btm_3?ie=UTF8&reviewerType=all_reviews&pageNumber=3
[web09] http://eulenhof-moehlin.ch/wp/
[web10] https://zaytunafarm.com/about-us/

[web11] https://store.holmgren.com.au/product/melliodora/ 
[web12] https://holmgren.com.au/melliodora/tours/
[web13] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Holmgren
[web14] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rob_Hopkins
[web15] https://www.thehollies.ie/
[web16] https://www.thehollies.ie/horsepower-at-the-hollies/
[web17] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masanobu_Fukuoka  
[web18] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masanobu_Fukuoka
[web19] http://www.permaculture.com/node/140
[web20] Andy Hamilton: The Ecologist: Growing without water: how to garden in a drought:

[web21] Bäume mit Katheter: https://www.bauexpertenforum.de/threads/baeume-mit-katheter.43621/
[web22] Permaculture News: https://permaculturenews.org/2011/08/19/summer-permaculture-tips-and-tricks/
[web23] 6 Tips For Backyard Permaculture: https://www.hobbyfarms.com/6-tips-for-backyard-permaculture/ 
[web24] https://permaculturenews.org/2011/04/11/spring-permaculture-tips-and-tricks/
[web25] Flo Scott: https://www.permaculture.co.uk/readers-solutions/9-tips-increasing-your-yields
[web26] Australia: Deep green agriculture: https://deepgreenpermaculture.com/diy-instructions/starting-your-permaculture-garden/
[web27] Phoenix ("USA"): 5 Tips for Gardening: https://www.phoenixnewtimes.com/restaurants/five-permaculture-tips-for-gardening-in-metro-phoenix-6504536
[web28] Masanobu Fukuoka: Natural Farming: http://www.finalstraw.org/masanobu-fukuoka-and-natural-farming/
[web29] Bill Mollison: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Mollison
[web30] Belebtes Wasser: https://www.grander.com/international/einsatz-anwendung/garten-teich

[web31] Permakultur, der Wasserfluss am Hügelbeet mit Kanal zwischen den Hügelbeeten oder Terrassierung:
[web32] Video: Hügelbeet bauen - Hugelculture (Sepp Holzer Style) (3'25''):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1KafYj_AcVs&t=30s - YouTube-Kanal: TrilightShowroom
[web33] Video: Hügelbeet anlegen im Garten (8'56''): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_-egIPX6AjU&t=15s  - YouTube-Kanal: Bio-Garten Reich
[web34] Auf einem Permakultur-Hügelbeet wächst pro Jahr 3 bis 4x mehr Gemüse pro m2 als auf konventionellen Feldern der Maschinen-Pestizid-Landwirtschaft: Video: DOKU - Unsere Landwirtschaft tötet Insekten und vergiftet das Wasser:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CXl71o8MrOQ (31'0''-31'20'')
[web35] Ertrag von 50 Euro pro m2 pro Jahr:
Video: DOKU - Unsere Landwirtschaft tötet Insekten und vergiftet das Wasser:

[web36] https://www.biogartenreich.de/rund-ums-gärtnern/bau-eines-hügelbeets/
[web37] https://www.wurzelwerk.net/2018/03/22/fruchtfolge-gemuesegarten-starkzehrer-mittelzehrer-schwachzehrer/
[web38] https://www.wurzelwerk.net/2018/02/28/anbauplan-erstellen-gemuesegarten/
[web39] https://www.wurzelwerk.net/2017/12/20/mischkultur-anbauplan/

[web40] https://www.mein-schoener-garten.de/hornspaene-13936
[web41] http://schneckenhilfe.de/helfen-eierschalen-gegen-schnecken/
[web42] http://schneckenhilfe.de/muschelkalk-gegen-schnecken-kann-das-funktionieren/
[web43] Idee von Köchin Sandra Isabel Jara, 6.10.2018
[web44] https://www.pinterest.de/pin/782641241470158841/
[web45] https://www.wildfind.com/artikel/starkzehrer-mittelzehrer-schwachzehrer
[web46] https://www.wildfind.com/artikel/tiefwurzler-flachwurzler
[web47] http://www.bio-gaertner.de/Zusatzartikel/Gruenduengung-geeignete-Pflanzen-und-saisonale-Ideen
[web48] https://www.mein-schoener-garten.de/gartenpraxis/nutzgaerten/traumpartner-im-gemuesegarten-12781
[web49] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Älchen
[web50] https://deavita.com/gartengestaltung-pflege/gartenarbeit/gemuse-pflanzen-ideen-tipps-garten.html

[web51] https://www.wildfind.com/artikel/tiefwurzler-flachwurzler
[web52] http://www.landwirtschaftundleben.at/downloads/lehrbrief3.7.4.pdf 
[web53] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lupinen
[web54] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luzerne
[web55] Video: Gärtnern ohne umzugraben - drei verschiedene Varianten von Gartenmulch im Vergleich:
[web56] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gewöhnlicher_Natternkopf
[web57] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gewöhnlicher_Hornklee
[web58] https://gesundesleben.online/index.php/mischkultur-im-obst-und-gemuesegarten
[web59] https://www.pinterest.de/pin/502855114640475383/
[web60] https://www.plantura.garden/gartentipps/gartenpraxis/hochbeet-bepflanzen-fruchtfolge-und-schaedlingsvertreibende-pflanzen#utm_source=Pinterest

[web61] https://kleingaertnerin.de/ratgeber/mischkultur.html
[web62] https://www.naturgartenideen.de/natur-gartenplaner/mischkultur/
[web63] https://gesundesleben.online/index.php/mischkultur-im-obst-und-gemuesegarten
[web64] http://imged.me/img/ - photo: Companion Planting Chart
[web65] http://grubbygreengrub.blogspot.com/2013/06/designing-herb-garden.html
[web66] http://grubbygreengrub.blogspot.com/2013/06/designing-herb-garden.html
[web67] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrethrum
[web68] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fransenflügler
[web69] https://www.gartenjournal.net/mischkultur
[web70] https://www.gartenfreunde.de/gartenpraxis/gartengenuss/mischkultur/

[web71] https://www.gartendialog.de/gartenpflanzen/sommerblumen/ringelblume-pflege.html 

Photo sources
[1] Vegetable bed with companion plants ognions and carrots: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/674836325383866176/
[2] Vegetable bed with mixed culture, scheme: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/483503709984258403/
[3] Vegetable bed with mixed culture, scheme 02: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/339529259400553659/
[4] Vegetable bed with mixed culture, scheme 03: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/496662665142307910/
[5] Assist plants for carrots, cabbage, endivia: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/502855114640475383/
[6] Table with companion plants, neutral plants and blocking plants:
[7] Table: effect of companion plants and assist plants with vegetables:
[8] Companion plants and assist plants for peas, strawberries, carrots: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/809310995512776841/
[9] Table of mixed cultures with companion plants, neutral plants and blocking plants: https://www.naturgartenideen.de/natur-gartenplaner/mischkultur/

[10] Companion plants and dream partners for vegetable and flowers in the planting bed, list with photos: http://imged.me/img/
[11] Big table with companion plants (dream partners): list with photos: http://imged.me/img/
[12] Mixed culture with schemes of roots with onions, salads and carrots: https://www.pinterest.de/pin/400257485615397831/